The 5.35m long and 30cm wide snake, which is now dead, contained a record 87 eggs when it was examined by scientists at the Florida Museum of Natural History.
Burmese pythons are native to south-east Asia and arrived in the US around 30 years ago as part of the expanding exotic pet industry,
They have been blamed for a decline in mammals in the Everglades, with research showing that they are now surviving for an increasingly long time in the wild, posing a threat to native animals in the area such as rabbits and foxes and even deer and alligators.
Kenneth Krysko, at the Florida Museum of Natural History, said: 'There's nothing stopping them, and the native wildlife are in trouble.
'A 17-and-a-half-foot snake could eat anything it wants.'
After undergoing scientific investigation, the snake will be exhibited at the museum on the University of Florida campus for five years.
'By learning what this animal has been eating and its reproductive status, it will hopefully give us insight into how to potentially manage other wild Burmese pythons in the future,' Mr Krysko continued.